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This is in relation to there being no animal that stands or moves with an odd number of feet. To the contrary, openings to a building were never made even in number

The columns and angles of a building, also referred to as ‘the bones of a building’, were never made odd in number. This is in relation to there being no animal that stands or moves with an odd number of feet. To the contrary, openings to a building were never made even in number, also in relation to animals, these people were given ears, eyes and nostrils matching on either side, where in actuality the mouth was put into the centre (the opening). The bones of the temple were no even number greater than ten, and in the case of openings, no odd number greater than nine. [21]

South Australia is home to many structures carrying a resemblance to the Italian Renaissance. The Edmund Wright House, located in the CBD of Adelaide on King William street, is one said structure that carries similar architectural design to the Italian Renaissance period. Built in 1878, the Edmund Wright house was originally the Bank of South Australia’s headquarters. In the early 1970’s the public convinced the state government to purchase and restore the building as plans were made to demolish and replace the building with a modern office building. The building was then officially renamed after its local architect.[22] A work of Italian architecture related to this Adelaide structure includes the Palazzo Rucellai, designed by Leon Battista Alberti and built in Rome, Italy on the year 1453, both structures demonstrating a smooth face rustication on the building’s façade. a identifiable trait between both designer and building; Alberti and his Santa Maria Novella façade (1457-70, Florence, Italy), is the technique of symmetry which is also presented by the Edmund Wright House. The Edmund Wright House’s exterior window frames and interior walkways cohere with the way Alberti consistently avoided the combination of arch and column in his religious buildings. The occasions his designs included columns he gave them a straight entablature, introducing arches resting on pillars with or without half-columns set against them as decoration.[23] Straying from Alberti, the Edmund Wright House can be just like the Basilica Palladiana designed in Rome, Italy by Andrea Palladio and built in the year 1549- in the feature of having inverted spaces held by columns. This is seen between the storeys of the Edmund Wight House. The façade of the Edmund Wright House has both arched and rectangular windows; this subtle combination of shapes can also be seen on the Campidoglio Capitoline Hill building (Rome, Italy) designed by Michelangelo and built between the years of 1475-1564. The detail of Roman Ceilings were all rich with relief and painting,[24] the ceiling found in rooms at the Edmund Wight House demonstrates similar beauty in the use of depth and detail of structure.

Below: Edmund Wright House

Figure 3

Campidoglio Capitoline Hill

Figure 2

 

Figure 1

 

 

Figure 5

Santa Maria Novella

Figure 4

Palazzo Rucellai

Figure 6

Basilica Palladiana

“Harmonious and unified compositions can be demonstrated in the combination of proportion and geometry. The conditions that apply to every kind of construction – that what we construct should be appropriate to its use, lasting in structure, and graceful and pleasing in appearance.” (Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988.)It is thought that a graceful and pleasant appearance derives from beauty and ornament alone.[25]

In ornamenting a house there were five main methods, referred to as the; Doric, Corinthian, Ionic, Tuscan and Composite orders. The orders were distinguished by the columns supporting their respective entablatures, dignified by function, not prettified by decoration.[26]

The Doric order is full, practical and enduring, whereas the Corinthian order is slender and full of charm. The ionic order is composed of elements from both Doric and Corinthian orders.[27] The Tuscan order is a Roman adaption of the Doric order, similar in proportion and profile, although much plainer.[28] Lastly, the composite order is a late Roman development of the Corinthian order, labelled Composite due to its capital being composed of Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus-leaf decoration.[29] 

In the 1740’s at the French Academy in Rome the language of international neo-classicism was established by French scholars.[30] Initially starting with projects for festival decorations in the form of temples and triumphal arches, these French scholars soon upgraded to the designs of public buildings on a power-crazy scale with endless colonnades, stone domes and complex plans inspired by the baths of ancient Rome. The rich ornament of Baroque architecture was rejected by these scholars as they found the highly spirited movement incompatible with the stylistic purity as well as structural honesty, elements that they came to regard as the essence of antique architecture.[31]

https://medium.com/@vladimirtrofimov049/3-best-business-essay-samples-89565e1951d8

Figure 7

Maurice Merleau-Ponty stated in the Phenomenology of Perception:

“The human body is defined in terms of its property of appropriating, in an indefinite group of discontinuous acts, significant cores which transcend and transfigure its natural powers.” (Smith, Chris L. 2012.)

The human body is measured as a “form.” In order to design in architecture one has to determine “the anthropometric distance between the human body and tactile objects, to orientate the proxemic interactions between one body and another, and to articulate something of the divine proportion of the human body.” ( Smith, Chris L. 2012.) The human body as a “matter” is subjectified allowing the aesthetic experience of architecture to be articulated in unity upon the bodily contact with the ‘gesture’ of everyday buildings.[32] Architectural theorist Chris L. Smith argues that architecture, like the body, is a set of repetitive rhythmic actions.[33] Smith also suggests that both the human body and architecture are unable to be categorised as discrete objects or singular elements. Both components otherwise create a kind of “material flow”, regulating chaos in order to collect architectural knowledge.[34] At night discourse of form and shape of tectonic buildings, our body plays an imperative role for the extent of the production process, exchange, and consumption of everyday architecture.[35] Perrault developed a scheme of modules and subsections incorporating lettering with calculations demonstrating: each letter being fitted into a square composed of 2,304 square units, 6×8 units to a side. The human body in the square and the circle is compared for the letters.[36] Perrault explains that; “the ancients believed with reason that the rules of proportion which give beauty to buildings were taken from the human body, and that as nature formed solid bodies adapted to labour, and those who should be adroit and agile in a lighter mould, so there are different rules in the art of building…those different proportions accompanied by the ornaments which suit them make the different orders of architecture.” (Rykwert, Joseph. 1991.)

 

The founder of English classical tradition architecture, British designer, painter and architect[37], Inigo Jones, visited Italy in 1613/14 implanting in him a passion of Palladio as well as a knowledge of ancient and modern Italian architecture.[38] “His Queen’s House at Greenwich is a small villa in the tradition of Palladio; his Banqueting House in Whitehall a basilica in the Vitruvian mould. Neither these works nor his country houses ( the most Palladian being Stoke Bruerne, Northants) met with any imitators until the early eighteenth century.” (Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au. 2019.)Christopher Wren, a great English architect of his time, introduced Britain to the contemporary Italian Baroque period with an admixture of French features as well.[39] Wren introduced a variety of continental a few ideas which contributed alongside of Inigo Jones in prompting the long-lasting Palladian Revival of the early eighteenth century.[40]

The Italian and French contributions to the classical revival were extensive, yet England had the new style developed most decidedly. England demonstrated a powerful influence over many fashions and intellectual life throughout Europe during the course of the eighteenth century.[41] The following architecture periods are each liked with recognisable design traits carried across by influences such as; Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio and the Perrault brothers. Classical architecture refers to the architecture of the ancient Mediterranean. The Renaissance period architecture resembles a revival of ancient classical architecture while architecture from the Neo-Classical period is described as 18th century classical architecture; along with adding archaeological findings about ancient architecture to the system of the requests as developed in the Renaissance. In the 18th century, England adopted an artistic style that was becoming popular across Europe known as Neoclassicism.

REFERENCES

IMAGES

[FIGURE 1] Adelaide, View. 2019. “Edmund-Wright-House-12”. AUTOPSY OF ADELAIDE. https://autopsyofadelaide.com/2016/11/01/urban-exploration-edmund-wright-house/edmund-wright-house-12/.[Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 6] “Basilica Palladiana”. 2019. En.Wikipedia.Org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_Palladiana. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 2] “Edmund Wright House | Adelaidia”. 2019. Adelaidia.Sa.Gov.Au. http://adelaidia.sa.gov.au/places/edmund-wright-house. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 7] Orders, Architectural, and Types order. 2019. “Types Of Capital. Classical Order Stock Vector – Illustration Of Illustration, Cartoon: 66710216”. Dreamstime.Com. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-types-capital-classical-order-vector-hand-drawn-illustration-set-five-architectural-orders-engraved-showing-tuscan-image66710216. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 4] “Palazzo Rucellai: Facade By ALBERTI, Leon Battista”. 2019. Wga.Hu. https://www.wga.hu/html/a/alberti/ruccela.html. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 3] “Piazza Del Campidoglio. Capitoline Hill. Rom By Bernard Jaubert”. 2019. Pixels. https://pixels.com/featured/piazza-del-campidoglio-capitoline-hill-rom-bernard-jaubert.html. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[FIGURE 5] “Santa Maria Novella”. 2019. En.Wikipedia.Org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Maria_Novella. [Accessed June 19th, 2019]

[1]Augustyn, Adam, Patricia Bauer, Brian Duignan, Alison Eldridge, Erik Gregersen, Amy McKenna, and Melissa Petruzzello et al. 2019. “Order | Architecture”. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[2] “Architecture in France: Renaissance To Neoclassicism”. 2019. Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au.

[3] Ibid

[4] “Renaissance Architecture | Boundless Art History”. 2019. Courses.Lumenlearning.Com.

[5] Muscato, Christopher. 2019. “Neoclassical Architecture in England”. Study.Com.

[6] Ibid

[7] “Renaissance Architecture | Boundless Art History”. 2019. Courses.Lumenlearning.Com.

 ”Architecture In France: Renaissance To Neoclassicism”. 2019. Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au.

[8] Ibid  

[9] Ibid  

[10] Ibid  

[11] Rykwert, Joseph. 1991. Positive and Arbitrary. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

[12] Muscato, Christopher. 2019. “Leon Battista Alberti: Architecture In The Renaissance”. Study.Com.

[13] Snell, Melissa. 2019. “ Who Was Leon Battista Alberti?”. Thoughtco.

[14] Wittkower, Rudolf. 1998. Architectural Principles. 4th ed. London: Academy.

[15] Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988. On The Art Of Building In Ten Books. 3rd-5th ed. Cambridge, Mass : M.I.T. Press.

[16] Wittkower, Rudolf. 1998. Architectural Principles. 4th ed. London: Academy.

[17] “Edmund Burke (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy)”. 2004. Plato.Stanford.Edu.

[18] Macarthur, John. 2013. The Picturesque. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

[19] Wittkower, Rudolf. 1998. Architectural Principles. 4th ed. London: Academy.

[20] Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988. On The Art Of Building In Ten Books. 3rd-5th ed. Cambridge, Mass : M.I.T. Press.

[21] Ibid

[22] Parsons, Alexander. 2018. “Edmund Wright House | Adelaidia”. Adelaidia.Sa.Gov.Au.

[23] Wittkower, Rudolf. 1998. Architectural Principles. 4th ed. London: Academy.

[24] Augustyn, Adam, Patricia Bauer, Brian Duignan, Alison Eldridge, Erik Gregersen, Amy McKenna, and Melissa Petruzzello et al. 2013. “Ceiling | Architecture”. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[25] Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988. On The Art Of Building In Ten Books. 3rd-5th ed. Cambridge, Mass : M.I.T. Press.

[26] “Architecture in France: Renaissance To Neoclassicism”. 2019. Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au.

[27] Alberti, Leon Battista. 1988. On The Art Of Building In Ten Books. 3rd-5th ed. Cambridge, Mass : M.I.T. Press.

[28] Augustyn, Adam, Patricia Bauer, Brian Duignan, Alison Eldridge, Erik Gregersen, Amy McKenna, and Melissa Petruzzello et al. 2019. “Order | Architecture”. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[29] Ibid

[30] Watkin, David. 2015. A History of Western Architecture. 6th ed. Laurence King.

[31] Ibid

[32] Smith, Chris L. 2012. “Beyond Building : Architecture Through The Human Body”. Frsb.Upm.Edu.My..

[33] Ibid

[34] Ibid

[35] Ibid

[36] Rykwert, Joseph. 1991. Positive and Arbitrary. Cambridge (Mass.): MIT Press.

[37] Summerson, John. 2019. “Inigo Jones | English Architect And Artist”. Encyclopedia Britannica.

[38] “Architecture in France: Renaissance To Neoclassicism”. 2019. Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au.

[39] “Architecture in France: Renaissance To Neoclassicism”. 2019. Rubens.Anu.Edu.Au.

[40] Ibid

[41] “The Development Of Neoclassicism | Encyclopedia.Com”. 2019. Encyclopedia.Com. 

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The name of Barbican means fortification in English. It usually shaped such as a square with four walls and four gates, one in each side, was being used as the outer defence of some ancient city. Barbican London now was built on the historical site of Roman London Barbican. It is a terrific complex group of the building contains residential blocks and some supporting facilities.

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The recorded history of architecture in the site of Barbican London started from 90 to 120 AD, the main fort of Roman London was built on the site of the Museum of London. “Around 200 AD, walls were built around the city.”[1]Leaders hope walls can protect the settlement of the interior from wars but the truth was the position of the city was on shallow land so it was always being attacked by flooding water. a new wall joining together with the old northern wall was built to prevent the water. At the 9th century, another three walls of barbican were almost being destroyed, but the North wall was still there and people named the north gate as Cripplegate. Barbican kept its military function until Edward III, he gave Barbican to Robert d’Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk who made the building his London home. After the 15th century, the London wall was updated, it became a boundary of social class between north and south. In 1666, there was clearly a great fire on the south side and the original houses were destroyed, the owner rebuilt it as a larger residential building and named it as Willoughby house. In the 19th century, with the development of modern technology, there were good traffic and factory development in this site, nonetheless, in 1940s German booms destroyed everything again. In the early 1950s, the plan of “build the city within the city”[2]  by Peter Chamberlin, Geoffry Powell and Christoph Bon was being accepted by governments.  1965-1976, Barbican estate and barbican centre was built, the name Willoughby house was being revived in this new group of building as a residential terrace block.

All object have its actual property, and all actual surrounds itself with a cloud of virtual images.[3] Time can be break into two parts with a gap in the middle. If actual can be seen as what already happened before, which is yesteryear. Virtual can be understood as potential, which is about the future. Past and future are two separate unachievable parts, meanwhile, the long run never stops becoming yesteryear. The working process of actualization is a transmission process from the past to the future is the bridge between two broke parts. These two parts can never connect to each other without the progress of transforming, this technique can be comprehended as the fragment. The fragment is the connection between the actual ( what the building was) and the virtual possibility ( what the building will end up) in architecture. Actual and virtual are keep inverting, keep becoming each other which caused by some events. Virtual images never stop getting actualized while the actual image will keep becoming the virtual image. The process will never finish unless any accident happened.

In Roman London period, Barbican was being used as a defence building for military function. The idea of building a Barbican to protect city was being actualized by finishing of the building process. Defending can be seen as the primary actual function of Barbican building which surrounds by the virtual images. In this stage, there are a lot of different virtual images surround by the actual, but the virtuality of being a residential building was being kept during the whole stage as it was developing. The potential getting closer to the actual property and finally absorb the actual, became actual. The virtual images react with the degree of actual practice such as owner decisions, social reasons and wars. The virtual image has been actualized while the owner Robert d’Ufford made the building his London home. Virtual images both absorbs and effect Robert’s decision. After his decision, being a residential building can be seen as the actual property of Barbican meanwhile military function became one of the virtual images. Virtual images have a principle of uncertainty. It keeps changing during events happens. The fire burned everything in the 15th century, the function of being a residential building became a virtual image of the site again. The fire can be seen as a finish, a finish of previous architecture and possibilities, but at the same time, it can be comprehended as a virtual start of the possibility of new architecture in the same space. The idea of having a new residential architecture on the same site was kept developing during the means of actualization. It wasn’t being actualized until the reconstruction process by Willoughby family was finished. Actual and virtual keep becoming each other is the co-effect of potential and potential.

The design of Barbican can be seen as unrepeatable not because of the technical issue or the level of skill in architecture design but because of the special of the site. Wars, fires of the site bring barbican more meaning, also there is absolutely no more possibility of having such a big site in the centre of London city. But it doesn’t mean it is the end of developing in Barbican. Following a idea of “taking best for yesteryear, and reshape it into future”[4], the meaning of buildings are kept developing while time pass, some property became past, and at the same time, some factors are getting actualized as a future.

Design of Barbican buildings is in Brutalism style. Barbican London was being built on the historical site of Roman Barbican and kept a small part of London wall which is in the corner of the Museum of London. They use raw concrete as the main façade material which is popular at that moment. The designing of furniture contains some old lamps, gutters and handrails in 1950s style which was being kept until now as historical detail and these details in architecture give us a sense of these items are adopted form World War 2 battleship. The concrete patterns on the facade were hand-made by labour in the 1960s. When visitors now arrive at Barbican, they can feel the sense of getting into a historical building in 19560s by seeing these details, they can image how labour here support the mode and produce the patterns on walls, which is the memory. Memory might come from their personal experience, or form others description. “Memory is not a actual image which forms after the object was perceived, but a virtual image coexisting with the actual perception of the object.”[5]  Actual of the concrete wall pattern and a virtual image of memory are coexist. There is a perpetual exchange between the actual pattern and the virtual image of the wall. Once we start to see the wall, we think about how labours work. Also if we think about the working means of labour at that time, we are going to always think about these walls. The relationship between the wall patterns and the memory of labour working can be seen as a circuit. Even the actual and virtual are keep having a relationship of perpetual exchange, the virtual image of the memory of labour working by hand in the 1960s can never being actualized by any event or activity.  “Actual refers to the virtual as its own virtual”[6], this relationship of exchanging between actual and virtual was being defined as crystalized.

World War Two significant decreased the amount of population in London city. The architecture intends of “offering an opportunity to reverse the population decline by enticing new residents into this void in the city”[7] generated by the need of having a high-density residential public house.  At first, Barbican was being designed as a “luxury” residential housing to attract classy people to stay in the city of London. It contains not only a simple group of residential buildings but also surrounded by some cultural facilities such as a performance art centre, church, restaurants, shops, conservatory and school. All functions which people might need was being shirked into Barbican as a smaller size, which created the small city within the city[8].

The shape of Barbican London kept the historical idea of Roman Barbican as a relatively closed space with high walls around the settlement. The entry of Barbican is hard to find from outside also the path was circuitous which shows the architect idea “one trying to get in, another lot trying to get out”[9]. The walls can be seen as a physical boundary and the boundary gives a lot of safety and privacy to the users inside Barbican. It prevents outside people from getting in unless they have the key of gates. Also, some invisible boundaries can be found in Barbican such as mental boundary. During the past 50 years, people living in Barbican already generated their own culture and rules which is different from the rest of London city. Some of the residents born here, get educated here and work here. Because they can get everything they need in Barbican, they have a limited circle of life and get used to rules in Barbican. Many of them went outside but came back at last because of their roots here. On the other hand, the Barbican building gives people a different feeling of history. The feeling varies from the outside London city, it generated by different material, different light result. It isolated Barbican to the rest of the city as an island, residents as voluntary prisoners accept the sense of self-imposed closures.[10]   A boundary can be comprehended as a break, a break of London city into two different parts, Barbican and the other part.

Instead of linking the idea of Barbican to the concept theme of the cave[11] by Plato, the concept of Barbican London can be more relative to the utopia[12]. The country of Utopia is the perfect dream place for living which is isolated from the rest of the world. There are two parts of utopia one is physically isolated as an island and the other is built on a corner of the mainland. They have their own laws, own rules in Utopia which creates a clear boundary from outside of Utopia even it’s on the same land. People outside can become a resident in Utopia or they can leave when they got permission from other residents. Exactly like people inside barbican can enjoy the knowledge and information of outside by education, reading books and on occasion even surfing on the internet if they want to. Also, they have traded between inside and outside such as online purchasing, also the goods in the store was coming from outside of Barbican. These connections based on people inside willing to break the boundary which can be seen as a bridge between the break, between outside and inside Barbican, which is the Fragment. There was some similar concept in eastern architecture history, such as Toulouse in Fujian Province in China. It was a kind of traditional Chinese high-density residential building made of immature soil. There are only some small windows towards to outside and the only entry was tiny. A group of people living inside the building normally with a water source in the building. These buildings also operate a defencing function with a clear division of inside and outside. The connection between inside and outside is the entry. What is different from the Barbican was Tulous are usually group of buildings. These buildings separate from each other but at the same time, they work together on the outside ploughlands. These ploughlands linked those separate buildings together as a community which is the Fragment between Tulou buildings. The Tulou buildings, The Barbican, and the Utopia are completely separate pieces which can be connected by the form of architecture which is also Fragment between gaps.

 “The endless creates the fold.”[13] Infinite of characteristic generates the fold, inside and outside, light and dark, soft and solid can be infinite. The fold can be as small as ash, also can be as big as the universe. A number of infinite small folds associate together become an infinite big fold. No matter what size of the fold, it “does not invent things, but twists and turns the fold takes them to infinity, fold up on fold, fold after fold.”[14] 

The infinity of folding can be divided into two different levels. [15] One is the fold caused by the property of the universe and the other one was folding while developing[16]. The first one is like a coil, and it continues wire which takes the fold to infinity in one way such as natural sunlight or time. They sometimes repeating but never stop. One of the building in Barbican in the west can block some natural sunlight in the afternoon and cause some shadow on the surface of another residential tower. The angle of natural sunlight change caused the length of shadow keeps changing. It never stops moving and every day it was on the same path, it will never stop unless there is no more sun or you can forget time in the world. The moving of shadow is just like a coil, even it moves in one way, the continuity leads it to infinity. It offers no change to the object and naturally caused by rules of the universe. The other one is like continue folding a piece of paper, which have different possibility due to different decision making during the whole process. It contains multiple different processes, which leads it to the infinity. For instance, the light and dark are the results of comparing. Exactly like getting into the inside of a building, it is the darkness relative to the outdoor space. But there is some dark spot in the room which made the rest of the room is the part of brightness. It just likes folding of paper, decision making can lead the contrast between light and dark to another level.

In Roman London, Barbican has four tall walls prevent people from the outside world come in. The outside and inside of Barbican can be comprehended as a fold, they have a connection in between as a gate but they are relatively isolated. People outside know there is an inside of the city from they know the property of walls have two sides. But those people will never know how does the inside of the city looks like unless they have permission from the leader of getting in. they can’t see what is inside the fortification doesn’t mean the inside is a non-existing space, it is because the outside façade has some window or gate only on one side, the inside is the next stage of the fold. “The problem is not how to finish a fold, but how to continue it.” [17] The permission can be seen as the key passing through the gate, the way of understanding unknown knowledge, which is also the necessary way of getting the idea of continue developing of the fold. But when the person gets into the Barbican, he will notice the definition of inside and outside for him is becoming different. What is an inside house, what is inside the room, what is inside the shelf, what is inside the pot? The relative “inside” became smaller when the relative “outside” gets bigger. The idea can be inverse. For residents inside the city, they will never know how does the outside world looks like until they arrive at go through the gate to the outside world.

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