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Literature became widely known thanks to the historian and writer Nikolai Karamzin

This system was a copy of the American one, adapted for the Soviet broadcasting system and compatible with black and white televisions.

Now about how such a holiday as World Television Day came about.

This happened in 1996. The UN General Assembly has proclaimed November 21 World Television Day. Every year, on this day, the UN reminds us that television is an instrument of globalization, cultural exchange, and popularization of the ideas of peace and security.

1. Photoelectric effect or photoelectric effect – the emission of electrons by a substance under the influence of light or any other electromagnetic radiation.

2. The Nipkow disk is a mechanical image scanning device invented by Paul Nipkov in 1884. This disc was an integral part of many mechanical television systems until the 1930s.

Author: Natalia Lifarenko

On November 30, our pets can legally be naughty and mischievous. Indeed, today all the representatives of the tailed and mustachioed have a holiday – World Day of Pets. 

“Russian Education” recalls the favorites of scientists and writers.

Asya the cat helped decipher the Mayan texts

While the Soviet ethnographer Yuri Knorozov at night deciphered the Mayan texts in his office, the Siamese cat Asya walked imposingly next to the old manuscripts. The scientist even put his favorite as a co-author of some research works. He watched the cat communicate with its kittens and put his assumptions to the signaling theory to the test. But the editors of the publishing houses mercilessly deleted the entry about Asya, which made Knorozov extremely sad.

Yuri Knorozov got a pet in the seventies, and it is with Asya in his arms that he is depicted in his most famous photograph.

Cats in the scientist’s house were allowed everything, but, however, they never abused it. In addition, the scientist loved not only his cats, but in general all representatives of the feline tribe. Many of his colleagues also had mustache pets at home, and, according to memoirs, Knorozov always came to visit, having in his pocket dried valerian root or a bunch of cat grass. In letters to friends, he described and sketched plants that cats especially like.

Asya had a kitten, which Yuri Valentinovich named Tolstoy Kys. While still very small, Tolstoy Kys managed to catch a pigeon on the windowsill, for which he was awarded a special honor: his photograph was always on Knorozov’s vast writing desk.

Mark Twain: “If a man could be crossed with a cat, it would improve a man …”

The American writer Mark Twain has always had cats at home. Among them there were even trained ones: at the ringing of a bell, they ran to a certain chair, and on the order of “sleep” they could pretend to be asleep. Mark Twain’s cats had their own predilections: most of all they liked to watch the writer play billiards. But the trouble is for the cat, which suddenly changed the direction of the ball’s movement with its paw, – Twain could easily expel such hooligans from the billiard room.

The writer came up with original nicknames for his pets so that his daughter trained in the pronunciation of complex words, of which: Zoroaster, Appolinaris, Sur Mesh and Blaterskit. Appolinaris was less fortunate than others: on Christmas night, a large red bow was tied around the cat’s neck and launched into the room with the children so that the cat would amuse them. In addition to cats, Twain’s homes were also home to dogs, squirrels and turtles.

However, his main favorite was the cat Bambino, who was presented by his daughter Clara in the last years of the writer’s life. Mark Twain taught Bambino to lap water with his paw and with the same paw to extinguish a candle light in a small lamp from which the writer lit a cigarette. The writer was so proud of this skill of Bambino that not a single guest of his could leave the house without looking at this performance. Mark Twain said: “If a man could be crossed with a cat, it would improve the man, but it would worsen the cat.”

Mayakovsky and a beloved member of the Bulka family

Vladimir Mayakovsky loved to travel around France and constantly brought luxury purchases from his trips. In 1920, unexpectedly for friends and family, the poet brought a French bulldog with him. Then a dog of this breed was the most popular accessory among wealthy Europeans. But for Mayakovsky, she became a full member of the family.

Bulka, this is how the puppy was nicknamed, Lilya Brik really liked. According to the recollections of contemporaries, Vladimir Mayakovsky always imagined the pet as their common. The poet usually took the bulldog with him on all trips.

Bulka brought puppies to the poet more than once, which he diligently nursed and distributed to acquaintances, attached to friends and neighbors. The faithful dog remained with his master until his very last day. On the day of Mayakovsky’s death, Bulka and her puppies were also in the apartment. It is not known who took the dog to him after the death of the owner. Presumably, Lilya Brik took care of Bulka.

Among the works of Mayakovsky there is a heartfelt declaration of love for “our smaller brothers”:

I love animals. You will see a little dog – here at the bakery there is one – a solid bald head – and then he is ready to get a liver out of himself. I’m not sorry honey, eat!

In the Russian alphabet there is a letter that is undeservedly forgotten in many printed texts – this is the letter “ё”. On November 29, 2016 she celebrates her birthday, she turns 233 years old.

The history of the letter “ё” began on November 29, 1783. On this day, a meeting of the Academy of Russian Literature took place. Those present at the meeting discussed the draft explanatory Slavic-Russian dictionary – “Dictionary of the Russian Academy”. Then the meeting was attended by prominent writers and academicians: Gabriel Derzhavin, Denis Fonvizin, Ivan Lepekhin, and, of course, the director of the academy – Princess Yekaterina Dashkova. When the meeting came to an end, she wrote the word iolk and turned to the academics with the question: Is it advisable to depict one sound with two letters? There was no answer, then Dashkova suggested replacing the combination of letters “io” with the letter “ё”. Her proposal was supported by writers, and on November 18, 1783, this letter received official recognition.

The first work, which was written using the new letter, was Ivan Dmitriev’s book “And my trinkets”, published in 1795.

Despite the fact that some writers have already used “e” in their works, it has not been officially included in the alphabet for a long time. Literature became widely known thanks to the historian and writer Nikolai Karamzin. He used it in the first book of his poetic anthology “Aonida”. There were such words: “dawn”, “eagle”, “moth”, “tears”.I must say that not everyone reacted positively to the verbal reform initiated by Dashkova. Among the opponents of the letter “ё” were prominent representatives of the 18th century literature, such as Alexander Sumarokov and Vasily Trediakovsky.

And this is how the president of the Russian Academy, Alexander Shishkov, commented on the new book of the philologist Joseph Dobrovsky, in which the writer used the letter “e”.

“Many words in it are printed with two dots above the letter e, somehow you live, you lie, you pour, you sing, and so on. Although they really all say this, that is, they pronounce the letter e as іô or ё, but this pronunciation is common, never spelling and purity of the language unusual, “Shishkov wrote.

Thus, many academics of that time believed that the letter “ё” introduces something common in the Russian language, the “yawning” pronunciation was perceived as petty-bourgeois, while the “yok” accent was considered more cultured and intelligent.In the 19th century, the letter “ё” ceased to be used due to the fact that it was difficult to print a letter with two dots in printing houses.At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, attempts were made to introduce analogues of the letter “ё”, mainly in order to convey the French letters eu [œ] [ø] / [ǝ] and the German ö [øː]. Such a letter appeared, it looked like the letter e with two dots at the top (ӭ). The letter had to not soften the previous consonant in the word, as the letter “ё” does, and was used to convey foreign names and names.

Officially, the letter “ё” entered the alphabet only in Soviet times. On December 24, 1942, the mandatory use of this letter in school practice was introduced.  

The meaning of the letter “ё” is difficult to overestimate. Its use changes the meanings of many words in the Russian language, for example, everything – everything; tears – tears; palate – sky; chalk – chalk and others

A Russian hybrid https://123helpme.me/hero-essay-example/ car was even named after this letter – "Yo-mobile"… By the way, the first owner "Yo-mobile" became the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party Vladimir Zhirinovsky. 

In 2005, a monument dedicated to the letter “e” appeared. It was installed in Ulyanovsk (formerly Simbirsk – the birthplace of Karamzin) by the decision of the city hall.

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