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On the contrary, they are ignorant and they trade the conservation of wetlands with their popularity during elections

On the contrary, they are ignorant and they trade the conservation of wetlands with their popularity during elections.

Recommendation

It is evident that wetlands are Uganda play a vital role in taping the sediments from the runoff which controls pollution. The local leaders have been assigned the role of implementing policies which protect the wetlands from destruction. Though, this has been ineffective due to personal interests. As a recommendation, I think that it would be imperative in the government would form a specific agency which would be responsible for ensuring that all governing policies of wetland conservation are fully implemented.

Conclusion

Wetlands are one of the key essential resources and an important component of the riparian land which filters sediments from the runoff water and this minimizes water pollution. Cultivating in the wetlands is key as it acts as a mechanism for coping with the climatic changes. In particular, the wetlands of Lake Victoria faces many environmental problems including encroachment for the expansion needs of the crop cultivation. In Uganda, many people have insufficient knowledge about lake and land use. In addition, many policies, regulations, and laws that govern natural resources are inadequate to meet up with the needs and challenges that have been posed by the high and increasing population rates as well as the intensive agricultural activities. The government has allocated the local leaders the responsibility of ensuring that the wetland conservation policy is implemented. However, this has not been successful for a number of reasons including lack of sensitization of the farmers, poor and lack of support from the politicians, lack of accountability and lack of support from intermediary institutions.

This paper did not cover the types of wetlands in Uganda, how each one of them is important and in case misused, the underlying effects on the environment. The various national wetland policies in Uganda have not been discussed as the paper focused on decentralized governance of wetlands. Thus, it would be imperative to focus on the various wetlands in Uganda and discuss how they are applied in order to ensure there is effective management of wetlands. The research focused on two regions and in Uganda, there are many areas around Lake Victoria which have wetlands. Thus, considering more areas would be crucial to gain an in-depth understanding of the wetlands governance and regulation in Uganda.

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890 words (4 pages) Essay

18th May 2020 Environmental Studies Reference this

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Introduction

In the 21st century, with the development of the times and the advancement of science and technology, human beings have applied advanced technology to life. Environment and energy fall prey to convenient human life. This has caused the environment around us to deteriorate. It is well known that environmental degradation is caused by frequent human operations. Smog is the most serious problem in the world. This essay will introduce three main causes of smog through car pollution, industrial pollution and overexploitation of non-renewable resources. It will look into its current problems, causes, impact and some solution.

Current issues

According to the three problems about the environment, it is known the most serious issues are in the present. First, the internal combustion engine of a car consumes a lot of oil. When gasoline is burned, it generates a driving force and also produces many complex chemical reactions, which emit a large amount of greenhouse gas and aggravate the greenhouse effect. Secondly, a large amount of untreated water, gas, slag and other hazardous wastes discharged from industrial production will seriously damage the ecological balance and natural resources of agriculture and cause great harm to the development of agricultural production. Thirdly, overexploitation of non-renewable resources in recent years by humans has accelerated the reduction in fossil fuels. It is a current issue, and we should think about our future. This series of factors cause smog.

Cause

Smog is a yellowish or blackish fog form. It is a state of air pollution mainly composed of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and inhalable particles .The main sources of these gases are automobile exhaust emissions and the frequent activities of industrial plants which directly release harmful gases into the atmosphere.

Effect

Smog poses a fantastic threat to human health. It has the greatest impact on the respiratory system, because this system has the most frequent contact with the external environment, and also the contact area is large, because the sun does not reach the ground in smog days, or the sun is weak. This results in the rapid reproduction bacteria, viruses and microbes or causing allergies and other diseases. People who smoke have a 60% higher risk of lung cancer, and smog contains more harmful particles, so it is more likely to cause cancer than smoking. India’s cities are among the world’s smoggiest and it is just starting to tackle the problem. The Indian government has announced a five-year program to cut air pollution by up to 30 percent from 2017 levels in the country’s 102 worst-affected cities. (Montek Singh Ahluwalia  2014). A israeli study has found for the first time that smog causes life expectancy in northern China to be 5.5 years lower than in southern China. (Ebenstein 2013)

Solution

Nowadays,many countries are developing sources of renewable and sustainable energy in response to the smog weather such as solar, wind and hydro power. These are natural resources and are clean sources of energy. They will not pollute the environment. We also can decrease air pollution by ourselves. I think we can reduce vehicle used by switching to a hybrid, or better yet, one that runs on fully electric. Other ways include taking public transportation, carpooling with friends and colleagues, or even riding a bike to your destination

Conclusion

Environmental pollution is a major problem in different parts of the world, which requires the policy makers to employ some mitigation. Because of the high number of cars, factories and industries that release harmful gases into the atmosphere must be reduced. These economies consume energy heavily, thus leading to environmental pollution. It is important to regulate the rates at which countries pollute the environment in order to prevent its harmful effects of smog. (640 words)

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2875 words (12 pages) Essay

1st Jun 2020 Environmental Studies Reference this

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If one considers the most profound changes in the social and physical conditions attached to human existence, one would have to suggest that the land use dimensions, including the shift to sedentary agriculture, the Industrial Revolution and large-scale urbanisation, are the most significant. However, it is important to understand that land is more than a mere material base. Indeed, Gladwin et al (1995) described land as a diverse, contradictory property with both social and cultural meanings that are mixed with human labour, the biotic community and a land ethic. From this it is easy to understand why land use has been the subject of persistent political struggle over the years and why it is challenging in both theory and practice to ensure sustainable development, whilst also taking into account the needs of a growing population. The eco-modernist interpretation of sustainable development encourages the use eco-efficient building materials as well as heat and power sources, and encourages doing more with less (Banerjee, 2003). Whilst this has shown that there is a theoretical possibility that energy and material intensity may be reduced, therefore reducing the environmental impact of population and industrial growth, this somewhat simplified approach does not take into consideration the relationships between land, the environment and economic activity (Baker, 2007).

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The focus on pollution and resource consumption by many ecological modernist theorists has failed to address the intrinsic qualities of the non-human world that are generally the cause of many conflicts over the use of greenbelt land (Hajer and Versteeg, 2005). Part of the problem lies in the way in which the development of land and environmental change causes uncertain effects. These effects are generally caused through the multiplicity of direct, indirect and cumulative processes that are difficult to predict (Hudson, 2005). These processes operate within economic, political and legal dimensions, with many crossing over between a quantity of jurisdictions. Whilst interactions between proximal land uses have historically concentrated on the effects of pollution, odour and noise on the human population, it is only recently that consideration has been taken over the effects of these environmental problems on the local flora and fauna and the wider scale sustainability of vulnerable species (Scully-Russ, 2012). From this it can be seen that land use and sustainability go hand in hand. As such, it is deemed necessary to focus attention on the planning processes and regulations currently utilised within the UK. The remainder of this essay will consider the way in which UK planning processes have been designed to protect the environment before critically discussing the reasons that they fail.

The concept of sustainable development emerged in the late 1980s with Brundtland et al (1987), followed closely by the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), forming the view that it is necessary to consider planning applications as interrelated processes that need to take into account the needs of both human and nonhuman residents (Barkemeyer et al, 2014). This encouraged the development of national sustainability plans, whilst Agenda 21 of the UNCED encouraged the environmentally sound physical planning of sustainable development within urban areas (Jabareen, 2006). These planning and sustainability ideas were rapidly incorporated into local government policy. In the UK, these ideas encouraged a new environmental movement that saw local councils considering the environmental impact on both urban and rural developments (Jabareen, 2006). Indeed, by the 1990s, nearly 75% of all councils within the UK had developed a green charter that recognised the need for environmental planning to mitigate against issues such as global warming, the destruction of the rainforest and depletion of the ozone layer as well as considering the impacts such a development would have on the local environment (Barkemeyer et al, 2014).

The emerging concepts of sustainability and the connections with the planning process were often outside of the statutory domain; however, incentives from central government, which supported sustainable development and controlled land use planning often encouraged the development of local policies (Cowell and Lennon, 2014). These local policies, along with international commitments, were rapidly incorporated into legislation, with the UK’s first official sustainable development White Paper urging planning authorities to consider the environmental effects of all planning policies (Cowell and Lennon, 2014). In the same year, the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 ensured that all planning applications considered the conservation, natural beauty and amenity of the land. This act also encouraged improved traffic management and changes to the physical environment within both urbanised and rural areas in order to deliver sustainable land use change.

Despite the UK Government generally falling short of making sustainable development a legal requirement of all planning regulations, they have developed a number of Acts that can be called upon in certain situations. These include the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, Natural Heritage (Scotland) Act 1991, the Sustainable Communities Act 2007 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 (Wilkinson et al, 2013). Section 121(1) of this latter act places responsibility on the National Assembly for Wales to set out proposals for the promotion of sustainable development within the Welsh region. However, more recently there has been a international emergence of the ecosystem assessment approach to land planning. This approach is promoted to ensure that the true value of the environment is taken into account during all decision-making processes (Adelle et al, 2012). The key concept of the ecosystem assessment approach is that natural ecosystems provide significant benefit, in both health and economy, to human society. Numerous proponents of the ecosystem services approach describe how the method would benefit the spatial planning of habitats to help deliver ecosystem services (Medcalf et al, 2012), in environmental assessment (Wilkinson et al, 2013) and in order to plan for a more environmentally friendly urban development (Baker et al, 2013). The following section of this paper will consider the problems encountered by UK planners in balancing the needs of an expanding population and the potential impacts on the environment.

In order to highlight the issues associated with planning and environmental protection, it is deemed necessary to utilise a number of case studies in which planning departments have clashed with developers. 1st of these cases occurred in the early 1990s in the county of Berkshire and was described by Cowell and Owens (1998). Berkshire County Council received a planning application to expand the capacity of a construction minerals extraction quarry to 2.5 million tonnes per year. The application was supported by central government, who at that time had apportioned a share of projected national demand for construction aggregate to each county. However, Berkshire County Council was concerned about the environmental consequences of this increased carrying capacity and decided that to meet up with the share of aggregate demand would be unsustainable because of their region as it would breach the county’s environmental capacity. In order to reach this decision, the county planning department used a methodology that involved an assessment of environmental suitability at the quarry. This methodology included a traditional sieve analysis, a process of strategic choice and public engagement. In their report, Berkshire Planning Authority stated that the protection of environmental features within the county was vital and the conservation value associated with the broader environment outweighed the economic benefits of such a development. The planning authorities stated that the environmental capacity of the area would be breached and that this environment capacity was based on the county council’s judgements about the compensatable and critical environmental capital within the county. As such they framed sustainable development by identifying the environmental limits of the area. Indeed, Berkshire Planning Authority asserted that the level of aggregate supply should fall by 3% per year from 1996 to 2011.

As was expected, the quarry company appealed the decision and the planning enquiry inspector sided with industry. The appeal report criticised Berkshire Planning Authority for ignoring the economic, local and national dependence on aggregates. The enquiry inspector did find the planning authority’s explanation of environmental capacity and the dependence on sustainable development persuasive; however, the report suggests that there is lack of demonstration on why the county could not maintain production of construction aggregates at 2.5 million tonnes per year. As such, the enquiry inspector agreed with the objections made by the quarry company that the concept of critical environmental capital and environmental capacity carried no weight within current realms of planning policy. The planning decision was therefore overturned.

The second case study also occurred in Berkshire where a major international company applied for planning permission to build its new headquarters in a green field location (Parker and Street, 2015). The plans immediately raised objections from local residents and environmental pressure groups who claimed that congestion and pollution would increase if the company’s headquarters was located in this area as well as damaging sensitive wildlife habitats. These opponents claimed that the government planning guidelines, which sought to reduce dependency on cars, would be flouted if the planning application was awarded. However, the Planning Authority was dramatically influenced by the company’s ‘green transport’ plan as well as the potential employment and economic benefits that such a development would bring. Therefore, following acrimonious debate, planning permission was awarded without any formal environmental assessment being carried out in the area.

In the Cairngorms, a planning application to develop a tourist funicular railway, to carry passengers to the peak of the mountains, was met with much resistance (Warren, 2002). Initially, the Planning Authority sought to reject the application, claiming that such a development would encourage more visitors to the remote area and damage a ecologically vulnerable area. However, pressure from other council departments, who saw opportunity for economic growth, additional employment and future potential development, forced the Planning Authority to grant permission, regardless of the extensive Environmental Impact Assessment that had been carried out by the Planning Authority proving that the development would cause considerable harm to the sensitive habitats of this area.

Despite these case studies showing significant failures in the UK’s planning regulations, there is one instance where the environmental value of a particular area was successfully defended. This final case study occurred within the cathedral city of Salisbury (Parker and Street, 2015). The Planning Authority received an application from the Highways Agency to construct a bypass that would reduce congestion within the city centre. This was in line with the County Council’s green plans to reduce pollution within the area. However, the route of the proposed bypass would bisect the environmentally important water meadows surrounding the city. These water meadows provided the habitat for a large number of migratory wading birds and were considered environmentally important areas. However, the subsequent public enquiry supported the application, claiming significant benefits for the city if the bypass was built. As such, a number of government advisory bodies on nature conservation and landscape protection were consulted in order to find ways in which to mitigate the impacts of the bypass on the wetland areas. These advisory bodies found that there were no measures that could be adopted that would effectively protect the sensitive habitats and mitigation, for the damage could not be advised. This led the Planning Authority to refuse the application and forced the Highways Agency to consider alternative tracks.

In conclusion, it can be seen that, despite sustainable development being at the forefront of the planning regulations, pressure from industry and the dependence on economic growth has a tendency to sway Planning Authority decisions. Despite all local and county councils now having green plans and sustainable development plans which encourage protection of the local landscape and environment, many are not being fully utilised. It is considered that until sustainable development is incorporated into national policy and regulations, then the needs for economic growth will always outweigh the needs of the environment. In addition, it is considered that whilst there are ways in which human impacts on the environment may be mitigated against, in many instances these opportunities are not fully taken due to the cost implications associated with adopting many of these mitigation measures. Therefore it is concluded that current UK planning regulations do not hold enough weight to successfully protect the environment.

Adelle, C., Jordan, A., & Turnpenny, J. (2012). Proceeding in parallel or drifting apart? a systematic review of policy appraisal research and practices. Environment and Planning-Part C, 30(3), 401.

Baker, S. (2007). Sustainable development as symbolic commitment: declaratory politics and the seductive appeal of ecological modernisation in the European Union. Environmental Politics, 16(2), 297-317.

Baker, J., Sheate, W. R., Phillips, P., & Eales, R. (2013). Ecosystem services in environmental assessment—help or hindrance?. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 40, 3-13.

Banerjee, S. B. (2003). Who sustains whose development? Sustainable development and the reinvention of nature. Organization Studies, 24(1), 143-180.

Barkemeyer, R., Holt, D., Preuss, L., & Tsang, S. (2014). What happened to the ‘development’in sustainable development? Business guidelines two decades after Brundtland. Sustainable Development, 22(1), 15-32.

Brundtland, G., Khalid, M., Agnelli, S., Al-Athel, S., Chidzero, B., Fadika, L.,& Okita, S. (1987). Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and Development, Ginebra (Suiza).

Cowell, R., & Owens, S. (1998). Suitable locations: equity and sustainability in the minerals planning process. Regional Studies, 32(9), 797-811.

Cowell, R., & Lennon, M. (2014). The utilisation of environmental knowledge in land-use planning: drawing lessons for an ecosystem services approach. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(2), 263-282.

Gladwin, T. N., Kennelly, J. J., & Krause, T. S. (1995). Shifting paradigms for sustainable development: Implications for management theory and research. Academy of management Review, 20(4), 874-907.

Hajer, M., & Versteeg, W. (2005). A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: achievements, challenges, perspectives. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 7(3), 175-184.

Hudson, R. (2005). Towards sustainable economic practices, flows and spaces: or is the necessary impossible and the impossible necessary?. Sustainable Development, 13(4), 239-252.

Jabareen, Y. R. (2006). Sustainable urban forms their typologies, models, and concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(1), 38-52.

Medcalf, R., Small, N., Finch, C., Parker, J. (2012). Spatial framework for assessing evidence needs for operational ecosystem approaches, JNCC report No. 469, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, Cambs.

Parker, G., & Street, E. (2015). Planning at the neighbourhood scale: localism, dialogic politics, and the modulation of community action. Environment and Planning C. Available online at http://www.envplan.com/abstract.cgi?id=c1363 accessed 1 October 2015.

Scully-Russ, E. (2012). Human resource development and sustainability: beyond sustainable organizations. Human Resource Development International, 15(4), 399-415.

Warren, C. (2002). Of superquarries and mountain railways: recurring themes in Scottish environmental conflict. The Scottish Geographical Magazine, 118(2), 101-127.

Wilkinson, C., Saarne, T., Peterson, G. D., & Colding, J. (2013). Strategic spatial planning and the ecosystem services concept-an historical exploration.Ecology and Society, 18(1), 37.

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2925 words (12 pages) Essay

1st Jun 2020 Environmental Studies Reference this

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There is a growing body of evidence available in the published literature that anthropogenic activities are the primary cause of global warming and the subsequent climate change that has occurred and will occur due to global warming (Solomon et al., 2009). The increasing international agreement has resulted in a general consensus that there is a global need to coordinate the responses to the global threat that anthropogenic activities pose regarding negative environmental impacts (Ostrom, 2010). In order to adequately address the negative environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities it is necessary to understand how the aforesaid activities interact aided by the environment to enable the development of appropriate solutions. However, the acknowledgement of the current global environmental issues and the need for comprehensive action does not necessarily translate to strategic responses worldwide. There are numerous aspects to the global response to environmental issues, one of which can be the subject of this essay. The particular aspect of the global response that is considered in this essay is the adoption of environmental technologies: in particular, what determines the successful adoption of environmental technologies?

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The adoption of environmental technologies is a pivotal aspect of mitigating the impact of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This is due to the fact that it is unlikely that societies will regress to the point where the continuation of day-to-day existence will cease to impact negatively upon the environment. Features of modern living such as electricity consumption and the use of automobiles are unlikely to cease in the near future. Therefore in order to reduce the negative impact of the global society on the environment it is necessary to reduce the impact of everyday activities by substituting technologies that are harmful to the environment with technologies that at the very least reduce the environmental degradation if not cease it completely (Bergman and Eyre, 2011).

It is a given that there is a global comprehension regarding how anthropogenic activities are degrading the environment, yet there has not been a cessation of the use of environmentally damaging technologies.

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